The increase in infusion duration may allow clinical staff more time to focus on compassionate care and additionally benefit health service resource utilisation. Unfortunately, the compatibility and stability of morphine hydrochloride, haloperidol lactate and hyoscine N-butyl bromide combined in the same solution has not yet been determined. Syringe drivers can be used either short-term or long-term, for patients who are ambulatory and those who are confined to bed. Introduction With one third of all patients in UK District General Hospitals expected to be in last year of life, end-of-life care is considered one of the key domains of care[ 1 ]. Diamorphine was found to be compatible with haloperidol 0. Breakthrough pain can be treated with additional subcutaneous doses of the opioid being used usually morphine.

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When more than one medicine morphin used in an infusion solution there is a risk that they may not be compatible, either chemically or physically. Care of the syringe driver once in use The safety aspects of the syringe driver What to do and where to get advice if the syringe driver is not working properly, or symptoms are not controlled, e. Destro et al[ 33 ] investigated the physical and chemical compatibility of morphine hydrochloride and ketorolac tromethamine at a range of concentrations over a hour time period.

The Palliative Care Handbook, Sringe for clinical management and symptom control. However, clinically significant degradation Managing breakthrough symptoms First check that the medicines are being delivered effectively via the syringe driver.

However, for a hour CSCI infusion, volume could be an issue with some medications, such as fentanyl. However, it is important to refer to compatibility tables because a solution can remain clear even if the medicines are chemically incompatible. Medicines are drawn up into a syringe that is then attached to the driver, which is set to move the plunger of the syringe forward at an accurately controlled rate. Provided that doses are within normal ranges, Table 2 shows which injectable medicines are expected to be compatible in a hour syringe driver solution.


Handbook on Injectable Drugs. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management.

When and how to use a syringe driver in palliative care

Increasing the number of medicines in the solution increases the risk of problems with the combinations. Consider using a syringe driver when: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Supporting information S1 Table Summary of included articles. Allwood[ 16 ] also investigated the compatibility and stability of diamorphine hydrochloride in combination with haloperidol over a period of 45 days.

Results The initial search of databases yielded 31 results: Compatibility of drug combinations reported Dexamethasone and midazolam Good et al[ 13 ] investigated the compatibility and stability of midazolam 2.

A check should be made of the: Taking the above into account, of the 32 combinations investigated, 20 included drugs at concentrations that are relevant to current UK practice.

The goals of administering medicines via a syringe driver therefore need to be discussed with the patient and family and any concerns addressed. Extra doses of antiemetics and other medicines in the syringe can also be given subcutaneously at the usual dose. Targett et al [ 22 ] ajd the chemical stability and physical compatibility of two different formulations of morphine haloperifol in combination with dexamethasone, droperidol, hyoscine- N -butylbromide and midazolam, diluted to 10ml with sodium chloride 0.


Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis. Allwood[ 16 ] investigated the compatibility and stability of diamorphine hydrochloride in combination with haloperidol over a period of 45 days.

Supportive Care in Hallperidol. When and how to use a syringe driver in palliative care Syringe drivers are often required to provide medicines for symptom management in patients who are terminally ill. If the patient’s symptoms remain uncontrolled despite an increase in dose, consider an alternative medicine e.

For patients who have not been on opioid medicine for analgesia, an example of an initial starting dose would be 10 mg morphine subcutaneously over 24 hours. In palliative care, medicines may be prescribed for unapproved indications, be administered by an unapproved route or given in doses not seen in routine day-to-day practice.

BPJ When and how to use a syringe driver in palliative care

Login to my bpac. However, this treatment option may be unacceptable to some patients due to the increased bulk of the infusion device as a haloperodol of the larger syringe. Watson et al; ; UK [ 32 ]. All studies reported using analytical grade compounds in the generation calibration curves and were linear with coefficients of determination r 2 greater than 0.

Total symptom control was achieved in 17 out of 21 patients with very good local tolerance. Stability and compatibility of binary mixtures of morphine hydrochloride with hyoscine-n-butyl bromide.